Geography of Thane
The two main rivers flowing through the district are the Ulhas and the Vaitarna. The Ulhas originates from the north of Tungarli near Lonavala, and flows to Bhor ghat and meets the sea at Vasai creek. Ulhas River is 135 km long with two important tributaries being Barvi and Bhatsa. Vaitarna, the largest of Konkan Rivers rises in the Tryambak hills in Nashik district, opposite to the source of Godavari, The river flows across Shahapur, Vada and Palghar talukas and enter the Arabian Sea through a wide estuary off Arnala.
Vaitarna River is 154 km long.It has a number of tributaries; the most important of them are Pinjal, Surya, Daherja and Tansa. Many small creeks are found all along the western coast.The bigger creeks are Bhiwandi, Chinchani, and Dahanu creeks. The Thane creek is not a creek in the true sense, but a depression engulfed by the sea. The northern part of the Salsette Island is part of Thane district. Arnala Island is located in Vasai taluka, at the entrance to the Vaitarna estuary. The district has no natural lakes. Artificial lakes have been constructed mainly to supply drinking water to Mumbai.
Climate of Thane
There are two distinct climates in the district, one on the western coastal plains and the other on the eastern slopes of Sahyadri. The climate on the western coastal plains of Thane, Vasai, Palghar and Dahanu talukas is tropical, very humid and warm. The climate on the plains at the foot of the slopes and on the eastern slopes of Sahyadri is comparatively less humid. The temperature variation is more in the eastern part of the district comparing to the western coastal areas.
In the coastal area, the average daily maximum temperature in summer is 32.9°C and in winter average mean daily minimum temperature is 16.8°C. But in the interior parts of the district, the average daily minimum temperature is slightly lower in the winter season and the average daily maximum temperature is higher in the summer.The average annual rainfall in the district is 2293.4 mm. The rainfall in the district increases from the coastal areas to the interior. The rainfall during the southwest monsoon season, June to September, constitutes about 94% of the annual rainfall. July is the wettest month with a rainfall of about 40% of the annual total. The variation in the annual rainfall from year to year in the district is not large.
Physical Features of Thane
Damanganga river upto Bhugad dam site
The catchment area of Damanganga basin upto Bhugad dam site in 729 sq km. The length of river upto Bhugad dam site is 55 km. Dawan and Shrimant are the principal tributaries joining Damanganga upto the proposed dam site. The river Damanganga forms boundary between Gujarat and Maharashtra .At Bhugad dam site, the Damanganga river flows through a well defined channel with a change in direction from North-East to South-South West. The reservoir area lies in Dharampur taluka of Valsad district of Gujarat State and in Peint taluka of Nasik district of Maharashtra State.
The proposed Pinjal dam is located across Pinjal river near village Khidse in Jawhar taluka of Thane district of Maharashtra State. The area around the proposed dam site is bounded by high hills of the western ghats rising to an elevation of 243 m. The Pinjal river originates at an elevation of 1245 m above MSL It has a meandering course in the 2 south-west upto its confluence with the Vaitarna river about one km north-west of Alman
Proposed Tunnels in Thane district
Khargihill-Pinjal link tunnel
Dams and Canals In Thane